On Saturday, February 21st 2015, CBS aired a 48 Hours special Fall from Grace about the death of Bethany Deaton in the fall of 2012. Originally ruled a suicide, Bethany’s death shook the close knit spiritual community of The International House of Prayer in Kansas City (IHOP-KC), when a member of Bethany’s Prayer Group, Micah Moore, confessed to murdering Bethany with his own hands, at the command of her husband, Tyler Deaton.
The case has been a lightening rod for discussion about the role of religion, homosexuality, cult activity, and manipulation. It garnered attention in January of last year when Jeff Tietz published a searching expose about the relationship between Tyler Deaton’s group and the larger context of IHOP-KC where Bethany, Tyler, and his community when to church and many went to school. Yet all these analyses took place with the assumption that Bethany was indeed murdered. Across news outlets and blog pieces, it was taken as a given that it was Micah Moore, at the behest of Tyler Deaton, the husband revealed homosexual manipulative cult leader, who had drugged and strangled Bethany in the back of her van out at Longview Lake. I had consider myself friends with Tyler in the years before Bethany’s death, and though I was never a part of his group I mourned her death at her November 6th, 2012 funeral was who Tyler reached out to when his friends abandoned him, and what at his house the day Micah was arrested and Tyler taken in for questioning. I was deeply affected by the events, so in January of 2014, I took up writing on the heels of the Tietz’s article with the goal of questioning the assumptions surrounding the case: What Rolling Stone Didn’t Tell You About Tyler Deaton.
Since then, there has been much discussion about the case as 48 Hours began to put together their narrative of this tragic death. Ambiguity had entered into the story, and we awaited a trial that would ultimately never come. For some, this is an event whose tragedy is only outmatched by Bethany’s death. The killers escaped being brought to justice. The murderer got away. Somehow Bethany was left unvindicated in her murder. 48 Hours leaves us thinking that we just can’t know. The program ends with Detective Cole saying, “”Our case is still open. And we will continue to investigate it.” When asked if arrests might be made it the future, Detective Kennedy makes it seem as if this prospect is likely, responding, “We would hope so. We’re working toward that.” Yet, leaving this open case or thinking up possibilities of further fowl play does not serve to remember Bethany rightly and does not draw attention to the real issues that drove so tragically to her death.
There is so much more 48 Hours could have said to show that Micah Moore did not murder Bethany Deaton. There is so much more they could have done to draw attention to the real forces that led to her death. There is so much more to the story to be said, and so much more to learn from the loss of this beautiful life.
When the news of Bethany’s death first reached the leadership of IHOP-KC, Allen Hood (President of IHOPU) and Shelley Hundley (former Vice President of IHOPU), came to Bethany’s house to provide pastoral counseling for the small community which Bethany belonged to. They have stated they came to help and care, yet these leaders’ presuppositions about the group could not have been neutral from the outset. A year previously, August 2011, Stuart Greaves, another senior leader at IHOP-KC, had been tasked with handling what was seen as problematic behavior within the group. Shelley Hundley had received an email from the group that contained a so-called prophetic revelation from the group claiming to have the word of God for Hundley. Also around the same time, Shelley Hundley called Deaton’s questioning and inquisitive behavior a sign that he was “bad fruit.” In October of 2011, when Sarah Sun Kim (former Executive Vice President of IHOPU) and Shelley Hundley met with another IHOPU student, Kim claimed they knew Deaton’s group was a cult and that they had a student leader who had infiltrated the group and was reporting back to IHOPU everything that was happening in the group.
Given this history with Deaton’s group, the pastoral presence soon turned to concern as Hood and Hundley began to question members of the group about the dynamics of the Bible study and Tyler Deaton’s leadership. Much of what IHOP-KC alleges was reported has never been revealed, yet it was alarming enough to the leadership of IHOP-KC to attempt a sudden and dramatic dismantling of Tyler’s group. Those living in Deaton’s house where told to move out, and the group was given a choice: come with IHOP and get deprogramming or stay with Tyler and be ex-communicated from the IHOP-KC community. Soon, a new story was emerging, one of a controlling religious subgroup dedicated to prayer, fasting, and an all-encompassing end times mission operating in secret at IHOP-KC. Within this community, group members’ money, relationships and spiritual growth were all controlled by the self-appointed apostle, Tyler Deaton. Though Deaton had married Bethany only two months previous, information began to surface of homosexual activity between Tyler and the other members of the community living in his house.
It was this context, in the midst of grieving the death of a close friend and being pressured to disassociate from a group that had been their primary social and spiritual context for the past years, which ultimately lead to Micah’s confession. It changed Bethany’s death from a suicide prompted by the unhealthy aspects of her spiritual community to a murder, ordered by the leader of a sex cult. Shelley Hundley, known within the IHOP community for her prophetic gifting, gathered the group who had left Tyler for a time of prayer and confession facilitated by an IHOP-KC affiliated ministry, Prisoners of Hope. The time of prayer grew into a time of ecstatic religious fervor, loud praying and screaming, shouting in “tongues,” (an unintelligible prayer language) and eventually an attempt to exorcise a demon from at least one person, Micah Moore.
The motion to have Micah’s charges dropped describes the meeting as follows; “Putting their hands on the cult members, shouting at demons to leave and scream-praying in tongues, soon had many in the group crying and yelling and falling to the floor. In that atmosphere – loud, frenetic, chaotic – all the pent up emotion from their friend’s death and from being accused of being a cult – spilled out.” In describing the meeting, Moore recounts “three men were shouting demons out of my body in an isolated room” and that only moments after admitting to some of the sexual activity between Tyler and himself, Shelley Hundley insisted “that [he] had something to confess? “You have something to tell me, don’t you, Micah?”
When Moore allegedly confessed to something involving astro-projection and witchcraft, he was taken into another room by leaders, including Hundley. Here, as Moore was subjected to yelling, shaking, ecstatic prayer, “demons” being cast out, and “curses” being broken off, Moore confessed to murdering Bethany Deaton. The original news reports have Moore saying he murdered Bethany because he and the other men living in Deaton’s house had been drugging and sexually assaulting Bethany for the previous few months. He claims to have recorded video footage of these assaults on an iPad and that the group wrote poems about them. Fearing Bethany would tell her therapist about the assaults, Moore claimed to have drugged Bethany with Seroquel before holding a bag over her head until her body shook. Later, at the police station Moore would claim Tyler had put him up to murdering Bethany “saying he knew Micah had it in him to do it,” according to court documents.
Yet, this is not the whole story. According to Micah’s lawyers, what the news reports failed to include was that in this same confession, Micah also claimed to have murdered another woman, Erica Jones*, who had left Tyler’s group the previous year. Erica had been one of the individuals, along with Bobby Herrington, who had attempted to contact IHOP-KC leaders in order to raise concerns about Tyler’s group during the summer before Bethany’s death. Nor did Moore claim to have acted alone. His confession placed Herrington at the scene of the crime, even though there is no evidence he was with Moore that day or that they had much if any contact since Herrington had left the group over a year previous. During his confession, Moore even asked if Tyler was indeed a real person, a confusion apparently brought on by the similarities between “Deaton” and “Durden” from the film “Fight Club,” where Tyler Durden is the name of the violent projection of the main character’s psychosis.
Having been up all night, and not allowed to sleep prior to his confession at the Police Station in the early hours of the morning, Moore was finally allowed to sleep for two hours at the station. When he awoke, he was questioned again about his confession. It was here that the story begins to fall apart. Upon waking, Moore responded to questions about the murder saying ,”I didn’t murder anyone.” The whole of Micah’s confession was retracted within only two hours of being officially made.
Yet, this is not the only hole existing in Micah Moore’s confession. It was easily confirmed that Erica Jones was very much alive. Moore had not murdered her. Herrington was not at the crime scene.
The subject of the suicide note was the next piece of evidence. According to court documents Bethany left a note reading;
“My name is Bethany Deaton. I chose this evil thing. I did it because I wouldn’t be a real person and what is the point of living if it is too late for that? I wish I had chosen differently a long time ago. I knew it all and refused to listen. Maybe Jesus will still save me.”
There has been much speculation about the contents of this note and claims that the awkwardness of the language and imagery means Bethany could not have written it. In his confession Moore claims to have written a fake suicide note yet handwriting analysis preformed by the FBI reveals that the note was indeed written in Bethany’s hand. Micah also claimed to have drugged Bethany prior to her murder, yet medical examination has revealed no Seroquel present in Bethany’s body, and a rape kit revealed no evidence of rape or semen in her body. Additionally, video surveillance from a local Wal-mart shows Bethany purchasing the drugs that would eventually end her life.
And yet, the simplest question was perhaps the one that no one ever thought to ask—did, perhaps, Micah have an alibi? Where was Micah Moore at the time of Bethany’s murder? The International House of Prayer is a Christian ministry built around 24/7 prayer and worship. Since September 1999, live praise and worship bands have lead a room of worshipers and intercessors in round-the-clock services of prayer and worship. In December of 2006, in partnership with GODtv, IHOP-KC began to broadcast a 24/7 webstream of the prayer room live across the world. It maybe should not be surprising then, that this webstream would serve the purpose of providing the final nail in the coffin of Micah’s false confession. The Prayer Room webstream confirms Micah was in the Prayer Room at the time of Bethany’s death.
The only evidence that Bethany Deaton was murdered was the confession of Micah Moore. A confession made under duress and in a psychologically compromised state to a religious leader, Shelley Hundley, who was attempting to exorcise Moore of a demon. IHOP-KC denies any ‘exorcism’ occurred.  Nick Syrett, an IHOP-KC spokesperson, defended their actions, saying, “This meeting was to help these young people process recent events and to hear their hearts related to these events. It was not in the slightest way for the purpose of ‘exorcising’ demons out of people.” Yet all those present (except IHOP-KC leaders) give the same harrowing description of the high pressure and intense environment in which the confession took place: a confession that was easily called into question with only the simplest investigation and now thoroughly disproved by a full investigation.
48 Hours can act as if there is a big mystery waiting to be solved, a last clue waiting to be uncovered that will tell the real story, but in doing so, they do a disservice to Bethany by failing to use her tragic death to draw attention to the significant forces that lead not to her murder, but to her suicide. The reality is, there is ample evidence, disheartening as it may be, that Bethany was severely depressed and psychotic, to the point which she was briefly hospitalized prior (leaving against medical advice), in the weeks leading up to her death. The medical records, including a psychiatrist’s description, specifically notes Bethany’s experience of psychosis (hearing voices preoccupied with her salvation). When scored on the Global Assessment of Functioning, a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic tool, Bethany received a low 30 suggesting, “behavior is considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations or serious impairment, in communication or judgment (e.g., sometimes incoherent, acts grossly inappropriately, suicidal preoccupation) or inability to function in almost all areas (e.g., stays in bed all day, no job, home, or friends).”
It is this information that is perhaps most telling in how we read Bethany’s death. Rather than looking for a conspiracy of murder and a twisted plot of intrigue, we should seek to understand the factors that lead to the rapid decrease in an innocent young woman’s mental health that eventually contributed to her suicide.
In collaboration with Richard Liantonio, I would like to end by looking at five points we should take away from the CBS 48 Hours special on the death of Bethany Deaton, “The Community” lead by Tyler Deaton, and their involvement with the International House of Prayer in Kansas City.
1) If you are a gay man, please do not marry a woman. For the rest of you, please stop pressuring gay people to be straight.
It is impossible to over-state the negative affect of the psychological, spiritual, and social pressure within Evangelical Christianity for homosexuals to conform to a heterosexual orientation. The teaching that homosexuals should change their orientation, “fix” themselves, and practice heterosexuality (the sure sign they have been cured of their malady), creates an unbearable and distorting context within which to come to terms with their sexual identity. Tyler Deaton was and is a gay man. The delusion of living in a high-pressure religious environment, within which changing one’s orientation is an expected norm, places unbelievable pressure on the individual to live out the “story-book” narrative of heterosexuality. Tyler was deluded into believing he could carry out a healthy heterosexual marriage with a woman and simultaneously unable to be honest about his homosexual “lapses” and mounting sexual confusion. When Tyler was unable to engage sexually with his wife after marriage, the psychological pressure placed on Bethany — that she was failing as a wife, that she was falling short of her task to love Tyler out of his “illness” — massively contributed to the deterioration of her mental health.
The official stance of the American Psychological Association is that the origins of homosexuality are unknown. As such, it would be best if Christians kept to that neutral stance instead of insisting, without basis, that the condition of homosexuality is rooted in issues of psychological “brokenness.” Regardless of its origins, it does not follow, either logically, biblically, theologically, or psychologically that an individual can significantly “reverse” their sexual orientation through any form of prayer or therapy currently in use. This has been verified by empirical studies done even by conservative Christians. The results show that religiously mediated sexual orientation change therapy produces minimal to no change in sexual orientation as defined by location on the Kinsey Scale.
Numerous people, including leaders in the ex-gay movement, have said (though people are hesitant to admit it,) that they have experienced little to no change in their attractions despite being involved in the ex-gay movement for over ten years. Despite the few real-life examples of orientation change (many of who’s stories are remarkably ambiguous, and “healed from homosexuality” is an incredible misnomer for what actually has happened to them,) empirical data shows that in most cases no such change happens and in the rest the change is quite small. With this in mind, the Deaton situation is a striking reminder of the real life consequences of brazenly insisting people change something about themselves for which there is no basis to believe can be changed and which, when pressure is applied to change, results in the negative psychological consequences described above.
2) If someone joins a religious group and has a rapid and significant personality change, be very concerned.
High-pressure religious groups can have a significantly detrimental affect on the mental health of those involved. A loss of autonomy and drastic changes in positive goals, aims, desires, interests, and personality may be indicators that the religious context within which the individual finds themselves is damaging and detrimentally affecting their mental health. Unfortunately, it is not only the members of Tyler’s group who report experiencing these types of rapid changes in personality. The larger context of IHOP-KC has given rise to numerous stories of these types of rapid, detrimental evolutions in otherwise positive and non-harmful behavior, desires, and personality. Within the spiritual environment of IHOP-KC, where students are taught to be “forerunners” urgently preparing the earth for the “end-times tribulation” prior to the return of Christ, Bethany’s changing personality was lost in a sea of individuals going through similar, if not necessarily so drastic, metamorphosis. This is not to say that there was not an intensification of these types of changes within Bethany individually, or within the members of Tyler’s group more generally. What is significant is that changes were all taking place within a broader religious context where high-pressure spirituality; a unique, all-encompassing identity; and a world-altering mandate, were all at work. While Bethany was changing for the worse, she was surrounded by rapidly evolving individuals with whom Bethany and her community regularly interacted.
3) If someone says something in the context of an exorcism accompanied by yelling, speaking in tongues, falling on the floor, and other ecstatic religious experiences, take what they say with a level of suspicion.
The fact that Micah Moore’s confession was given so much weight and was allowed to be propagated as far as it was without being called into question is deeply troubling. Given the amount of details in the confession which were easily disprovable, the fact that IHOP-KC leaders boldly stated Moore had murdered Bethany seems increasingly irresponsible. Professional pastors should have the ability to assess the truthfulness of the information they receive and demonstrate restraint with how that information is presented, especially when the factual evidence available and the context within which the information was received present as many challenges as Moore’s confession did. Both the death of a close friend and the removal of one’s spiritual and social context are very traumatic events that create a context for psychological breaks from reality, susceptible to gaslighting (where an individual is caused to doubt their own memory via the twisting of facts, selective omission, or false information), and an inability to coherently function. Adding to these conditions, the high-intensity prayer session facilitated by Prisoners of Hope and Shelley Hundley, who Mike Bickle, the founder and head Pastor of IHOP-KC, says “went for it” to get the confession, should instantly call into question the ethicality of the actions of those in leadership over these proceedings and the reliability of the information which was obtained.
This behavior has been deeply troubling since the truth of Micah’s innocence has come out. Regarding to their involvement, Moore says,
“The role of the International House of Prayer in this whole situation is absolutely reprehensible. They threw me to the f$&@ing wolves and then walked away dusting their hands off. It is sickening that people so emphatic about “hearing the voice of the Lord” would show no interest in uncovering the truth. That Mike would state … that Shelley Hundley was a hero who had solved a mystery and I was a murderer shows their self-interest and their disregard for factual information. Further, their public statements about what happened at Shiloh could not be further from the truth. Their only basis for the way they handled everything was to defend their own public image, not to defend the innocent.” 
After receiving Moore’s confession, however ill-gotten it many have been, Hundley certainly had some responsibility to report that confession to the authorities. Yet, this does not explain her failure to encourage Moore to first seek legal counsel of his own nor did it necessitate Hundley or anyone else on the IHOP-KC leadership to actually believe the confession or to address the whole IHOPU student body and IHOP-KC community as if the confession were true. If Moore confessed to witchcraft, astro-projection, and, most importantly, the murder of another woman within the IHOP community, there should have been more than enough reason to doubt the authenticity of such a confession. The fact that Erica Jones was alive would have been easy enough to confirm. On this information alone, the IHOP-KC leadership should easily have raised suspicion concerning the rest of the confession. Yet these questions were apparently never raised. Bickle took the stage at IHOP-KC certain he was telling the truth about the murder of Bethany Deaton, certain Micah Moore was the murderer, and that Tyler Deaton had brought his group to IHOP to operate under a “veil of secrecy.”
4) If you are a cult leader, and another religious group is able to get all of your followers to abandon you within one day, maybe you’re not the one who is really in control.
The way in which IHOP-KC went about removing the community members from Deaton’s group demonstrates an extreme level of irresponsibility. Giving the members an all-or-nothing ultimatum to stay with Tyler or come with IHOP-KC is damaging and places an irresponsible level of psychological strain on members. This is exasperated even more, having taken place right on the heels of the funeral of their close friend. This drastic method of getting members to leave is often referred to as deprogramming and has fallen out of favor in anti-cult studies. Rather, the preferred method of helping individuals who are in unhealthy religious groups is commonly referred to as exit counseling. The goal of exit counseling is the well-being of the member: helping him/or reestablish autonomy and make an informed choice.
Exit counseling seeks to focus on providing information. A trained exit counselor spends significant time coming to understand the dynamics of the group they are seeking to counsel a person out of. Often the counselor meets with the individual privately or along with the members of their family who have expressed concerns about the group. The exit counselor seeks to present information about the group, harmful elements the individual may have been unaware of, or ways the group is controlling. The counselor does not seek to focus on the correctness of the group’s teachings in relation to other religions or philosophies. They do not seek to label behavior as sinful. Rather, they seek to demonstrate the ways the group’s environment is psychologically unhelpful or harmful for the individual. Ultimately, the counselor respects and dignifies the choice the individual makes, whether to stay or leave the group. They do not enact punishment or impose negative consequences in order to pressure the individual to leave. They do not hold up any other group, doctrine, or ideology as the correct or true teaching the individual should embrace. Rather, above all, they seek to reestablish the person’s autonomy, which has been compromised by their involvement in the group. The exit counselor ultimately seeks to see the individual be loyal not to any other individual, creed, leader, or group, but to themselves, their own desires, self-understanding, goals, and identity.
5) If the religious or social environment within which you are operating does not provide the tools with which to navigate the breakdown of mental health and the possibility of psychotic suicide, preemptively seek input and help from family members and others outside of your social or religious environment and find professional assistance.
Despite its shortcomings, perhaps the most powerful moment of the CBS 48 Hours special, “Fall From Grace” is the final interview with Bethany’s father where he admits, “in my particular — understanding of the facts, as we’ve come to know them at this point, I believe Bethany was severely depressed, to the point of being suicidal. And — I believe that she wasn’t properly cared for or protected in a very fragile state. And I think she took her own life.” While I do not know why Mr. Leidlein chose to speak out, I can only hope one of the byproducts of his courageous action would be for people to become more aware of the factors surrounding depression and psychotic suicide.
When talking about the night of worship where Tyler was challenging the members to make a choice, Deaton states in his interview that “there was a part of me that was like, ‘I — I just — I don’t have anything else to do. I don’t have anything else to say. What am I gonna do?” The context of his community and the larger environment of IHOP-KC did not prepare him to navigate the complexities of depression and psychotic breaks. As Deaton says elsewhere, “it was my — my messed up world view. …I thought there was no way someone could really just start believing this stuff and have like — a snap like that. I thought that Bethany was doing what she was doing on purpose. I really did.” The religious context he found himself in, even that his own leadership at IHOP-KC was creating, made it impossible for Tyler or the members of his group to know how to respond or offer appropriate help. Commenting on the ambiguities surrounding Bethany’s death, Moore states, “The only mystery surrounding Bethany’s death is how the hell we got so absorbed in Tyler’s bull&%#t that when our friend was threatening suicide, going around saying she was sure her soul was damned to hell, we didn’t even have the sense to tell her parents.” The religious environment of IHOP-KC did not provide the adequate tools to navigate these difficult circumstances or provide Bethany the help that may have saved her life — the narrative of radical religious devotion, abandonment of self, and the need to model a heterosexual relationship regardless of the true orientation of her husband were too strong.
Those involved in Deaton’s group, including Bethany and Tyler, sorely lacked the type of positive outside input in order to find answers to the complications the failure of their new married life had caused. Insulated within the confines of their own radical group and stuck within the bubble of religious fervor of IHOP-KC, there was no where to turn. Compounding this was the belief, both in Deaton’s group and IHOP-KC, that those on the outside are not sufficiently spiritually attuned to understand their problems and give reliable help. In fact, the help they might offer could actually be “spiritually destructive.” Answers did not seem possible—creative solutions were outside of their cognitive ability to discover. The moral of this tragic story is the need for the church at large, especially charismatic circles, to take seriously the issues of mental health and to promote education and tools that will help people suffering from depression, delusion and psychotic episodes to find the help they need. It is significant that the elements of religious fervor and intensity that gives rise to these types of disorders must be addressed head on and rooted out so that these tragedies might be averted in the future. Bethany Deaton’s death is a heart-wrenching reminder of the consequences of organizations such as IHOP-KC continuing to operate without adequately addressing the pressing issues of mental heath within their four walls.
There are still plenty of questions left to be answered. Does this mean Tyler Deaton and his group were a healthy organization? I do not think so. Members of the group have come forward with stories of the manipulation and control taking place within the group. There is still the question of Tyler using his position of authority to manipulate sexual contact with the men in his house, yet this contact never resembled the type of full blown sex cult that the media or IHOP-KC leadership lead us to believe. It seems much more likely that the homosexual activity represents just the type of actions that individuals attempting to suppress and reform their sexuality might find themselves engaged in. We need to be compassionate in our attempts to understand what was going on in Tyler’s group given the amount of social and psychological pressure Deaton and others were under.
What actually happened? What was the nature of Tyler Deaton’s group? How did the larger spiritual atmosphere of IHOP-KC, and more specifically the atmosphere of Deaton’s group, contribute to Bethany’s suicide? These are the questions that need to be asked. These are the details that need to be wrestled with. There is one question we now have the answer to. Micah Moore did not murder Bethany Deaton. Micah Moore is innocent. On October 30th, 2012, Bethany Deaton committed suicide. That is the truth those of us who knew her must mourn. That is the fact we must reconcile with.
Bethany Deaton took her own life.
Let us remember her and mourn her.
Sitting in a chapel by Longview Lake, just across the water from where she died, I am surrounded by members of Tyler’s group. It is November 6th—Election Day, 2012, two days before the confession that would change so much. I am one of the few outsiders there, along with my girlfriend and Richard Liantonio. We shake hands with the family of the deceased. We send our sympathies. We send our prayers. The service starts. Jaye Thomas, an IHOP-KC worship leader, starts with a worship song — “Taste and see that The Lord is Good.” It is far too happy. Allen Hood and Shelley Hundley share something. The microphone is opened for reflections. Micah, Tyler, three or four others share their thoughts. I wish I could go back, with all the hard-earned answers we now have, along with the lingering ambiguities, uncertainties, and doubts, and mourn her like she should be mourned. Not with the simple story but the full, nuanced, ambiguous nature of it all. That is the way she deserves to be mourned.
 Fall From Grace, 48 Hourse February 21, 2015 Produced: Chris O’Connell, Lindsey Gutterman and Dena Goldstein
 Langone, Michael “Helping Victims: History Background.” Recovery From Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse. ed. Michael D. Langone, (W.W. Norton & Company, New York: 1996) 22-23
 Micah Moore, The Acquittal of Micah Moore Two Years Too Late, Jonathan Barclay, Blog Comment: 2014 https://confessionsofateenagemontanist.wordpress.com/2014/11/02/the-acquittal-of-micah-moore-two-years-too-late/comment-page-1/
 Allen Hood, Regarding the Death of Bethany Deaton http://www.ihopkc.org/ihopu/statement/regarding-the-death-of-bethany-deaton/statement-from-allen-hood-president-ihopu/
 Langone, Michael “Helping Victims: History Background.” Recovery From Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse. ed. Michael D. Langone, (W.W. Norton & Company, New York: 1996) 30-31
 See Clark, David, Giambalvo, Carol, Giambalvo, Noel, Garvey, Kevin, and Langone, Michael “Exit Counseling: A Practical Overview” 155ff, and Garvey, Kevin. “The Importance of Information in Preparation for Exit Counseling” 181ff Recovery From Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse. ed. Michael D. Langone, (W.W. Norton & Company, New York: 1996)
 Fall From Grace, 48 Hourse February 21, 2015 Produced: Chris O’Connell, Lindsey Gutterman and Dena Goldstein